MODERN PAINTING IN AUSTRIA ment of portrait painting, while still a young man, was a sheer act of friendship to the lithographic portraitist, Kriehuber, with whom he did not wish to come into rivalry. Rudolf was the leader of the Viennese  » Veduta  » painting, the true biographer of Vienna, old and new, the indefatigable chronicler in whose water-colours and marvellous pencil-drawings a whole world of picturesque beauty, now demolished, continues to live. His was an honest, cheerful, and domestic character, and he was as a painter quite simple, ever absorbed in his task, and producing easily and tirelessly—in fact, a real type of the Austrian and the Viennese in the days of the  » Waltz King, » Johann Strauss, and the local, dramatic geniuses, Nestroy and Gallmeyer. Sprung from the Viennese people, he was a genuine son of the soil, to which he clung all his life, full of its scent—the  » Wiener Luft « —full of the spirit of the century, on whose sundial, year in, year out, the shadow of St. Stephen’s Spire performed its round. In Vienna they call such an one an  » Urwiener. » Moreover, he made several journeys, which extended even to the Crimea and to Sicily. In Italy he painted many delicious pictures, at first working in oils, in which he was always somewhat heavy. He never went to Paris, and thus remained free from its influences. He was original through and through, yet at no time did he allow his originality to ossify into mannerism. He gladly let himself come in con-tact with all the tendencies of the period ; he was always up-to-date and opportune, and we can immediately tell the period of his pictures, even though they be undated. It is remarkable that the author of the minute detail work of early years, of the Biedermaier period and the so-called  » Vormârz, » should have acquired, in the freer and more decorative Makart days, such breadth and richness of brush, as though he had never had aught to do with the laboured drawings of old Vienna ; and in later years, when his trembling hand made writing almost impossible to the old man, he invented for himself a method of forming his characters with the tip of his brush, point by point, never failing to hit the right place. Then came the  » pointillist  » movement in Paris, and one saw that from sheer physical necessity Alt had long anticipated it. Thus all the styles and modes of painting of a whole century are reflected in his work. Even in his early water-colours, done in the thirties of the century, one often finds him busy with the problems of to-day—as when he depicts the play of the full sunlight on some broad plane, or paints in oils a Viennese eclipse or the sun (1842) simply as an atmospheric occurrence, as a study, quite in the modern spirit. At the sale of his works by auction, in A 111