notions that seemed obscure became clear and seemed new. This procures for the architect the surprise of discovery and the desire to understand what he discovers. Michetucci affirms that style perfection, structural purity and invention have never interested him, on the contrary he is influenced by ‘rupture’ which indicate the arrivai in the mind of new possibilities and new paths to follow, even if these ruptures interrupt the progression of form. What counts is that architecture should take the visitor’s hand and lead him to discover something in himself. A hundred artists ought ot work on a building, each with his passions and personality, doubts and hopes, so that the con-strution looses its format unity to take on a chorus of unities, simple but rich with interior suggestions for those who observe. The architect explains that he is often questioned on the form he would imagine for another church and he considers he would have to build a whole town or part to elaborate his theories. He explains—people expect public places to be monuments but this provokes diversity of opinion on costs, functions, etc. Also he can no longer consider a church atone, it must be integrated into a city. It has been said that the motorway church is not modem because it does not use advanced techniques. But architecture is space to exact human values and man’s dignity, therefore it can be achieved with any material or technique, the choice is guided by function. It is rare that a dialogue can be established between the architect and the site workers or the occupiers. Often construction remains anonymous, resulting from and in difference. But Michelucci’s church gave rise to many friendships through collaboration. It has also been said that this church is a work of fantasy, meaning a process which is beyond reality, whereas it springs from real facts, to become space adapted to situations to exact moments of hope and desperate solitude reveaied by research. ln conclusion Michetucci points out that modern architecture made of steel and glass, becomes impersonal and sad because it has never sought to have a human aspect but has only shown its technique Those who are to live in new towns are now the judges and their criticism will be elementary and efficient by accepting or refusing ot live in these constructions ait their life. Religious building has not been spared by modem tastes. It too has become arid with technical complacency and few contemporary examples have demon-strated the need and the possibility of reconquering liberty which will be the awakening of fantasy, Far from being a traitor to function, this will give new meaning to man’s participation, by his spitual life, to architectural space. GENESIS OF RESEARCH. Vittorio Giorgini. A few historical verifications of the Baroque style, of Gaudini and Van de Velde experiments and the rediscovery of Kiesler and Saarinen studies awake-ned Giorgini’s interest in research on free form. He directed his attention to membrane structure by trying to show that they had generally been designed using traditional geometry. There is however another freer geometrical method using grid and cement with which he has persevered. Resulting forms neve no format intention-they are forms by which natural structures are revealed. The building of the first sculptural dwelling brought a great deal of technical experience and even promised possibilities of prefabrication on more scientific lines. Coupled with new experiment on vibration, Giorgini is convinced that it will be up to scientists with the help of projects designed by architects-sculptors to materialise space on magnetic grids similar to the electrolytic process. But in this work ail false and artificial expression, upheld by forma-lism and « culturisms » devoid of real and necessary meaning must be refused. • ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH. 78 Christian Hunziker. ARCHITECTS AND SCULPTORS. What is the meaning of the interdependence of the arts? An American observer writes that the days when architecture owned so much to sculptors and artists experiences have passed, it no longer needs them for basic esthe-tical inspiration. This change of opinion does not seem to exist in Europe for the moment. From it we may make a supposition — if architects do not participate in contemporary arts they will be obliged to seek inspiration from the past. Like ail arts, architecture must « get across- to create communication between the «building» and the occupier. But to-day since their activities are so varied architects wonder what they really are—artists, engineers, managers? Above an they must co-ordinate. Kevin Lynch’s research has proved that the participation of sculptors in setting up town plans could make them much more « readable » to the inhabitant. We had learnt that in practice, living depends on the aptitudes that objects have of becoming real, to clarify this reality the laws of human perception must be respected. This is equally true for materials such as concrete, metal, glass, plastics, have they become architec-ture? Some great masters have succeeded in transforming them but for the majority they remain in the state of coloured or stratified imagery which is a painful transitional stage for the population, anxious to be at case in its sur-roundings. Familiarity and frequent use is not sufficient to enable a material to cross the threshold of human sensibility. Those who are familiar with Fôrderer use of reinforced concrete will be able to appreciate his success, although he himself minimises the importance of material, simple because he has solved the problem. The creativeness of those who work in new fields with new themes is sharpened by the challenge (steam-engines, aviation) but this is not truc of ail sectors. Only few architects are gifted with artistic maturity, therefore they should turn for help to specialists in the research for communication pos-sibilities at the beginning of a project. The sculptor can provide the plastic model which will make the space conception understandable, also help to choose materials and their use. The modern world with its economic technique and resources is in action but only as regards means, there remains to find its expression. Walter Forderer. The main new possibility offered by reinforced concrete is its continuous shaping in formwork. Contemporary culture contains synthesis capable of satisfying our real vital necessities. Painters and sculptors have passed on orientation images to us. Ail we have to do now is put them into place. Faith in the human continuity of primary creative force is to be found in painting and sculpture. ln their expression these works can correspond to the solutions Fitirderer feels as adequate for buildings. Piotr Kowalski. HOUSING PROJ ECT. The use of surfaces in tension, supple and sliding formwork, sprayed mate-rials offer architecture and sculpture a tool to create complexe space and form. This enables us to envisage architecture other than by prefahricated panels which finally prove expensive because variations must be found to avoid mono-tony. An effort should be made to restrict the standardising of building components to elements which lend themselves easily to this—sanitary instal-lation, kitchens, etc. VI François Dallegret. THE DRUG, MONTREAL. Dallegret explains that in his design he sought a new means of pleasing, by creating an organic and mechanic image. It is an anti-design, at first surprise, uneasiness, uncomfortableness and details which will incite the observer to want to complete volumes and spaces which differ with the viewing angle. Since the paint is white, with time, it will be scribbled on by the public, the walls will become a -happening. Charles Deaton. SCULPTURED ARCHITECTURE. Deaton believes that sculptured architecture preceded angular architecture. since mankind lived in undulating hills and caves. Structural necessity was the reason for the rounded mud hut but now progress in steel enables us to almost float in the air. Curving architecture has always existed, therefore the main question is not to define if it is a novelty or not, but rather to find how it can be developed as architectural design. Constant. NEW BABYLON. With automation man will be able to abandon his existence of labour to become a creator. lnstead of being able to just ”keep alive-, man will be able to in freedom, a human life, complete for the first time. He will no longer be attached by his work to a certain locality, he will become a nomade, eager for adventure and exploration, in an environment which he will rapidly change and adapt to his fancy. New Babylon is the land of « homo ludensrr, entirely adapted to permanent changes, flexible from the master plan to the least detail. The construction unit is the sector representing a iink in a long chain, no frontiers, no barriers. It is built slowly, demolishing old quarters when necessary. Intervening open space is accessible to ail. Each sector includes horizontal planes on stilts leaving the ground free. Interior space can be divided off with mobile partitions. Permanent equipment provid-ed in each sector for communal activities. The creative initiative of each indi-vidual will affect his fellows and cause spontaneous reactions, which will have linked repercussions, finally forming a collective creation. The rhythm of the ebb and flow of moments of environment will fix the proportion time-space of New Babylon. • SCULPTURE. 96 SCULPTURE AND ARCHITECTURE. Gerald Gassiot-Talabot. The failure of the union between sculpture and architecture betrays a deep need, which seeks to pass over laziness, routine and alibis. Each sculptor has an ideal image which would be sculpture and architecture, useless and useful form, open and closed space. It is this attraction of sculpture to go towards architecture which interests us, a fragile moment of transition which -becomes eternity in certain works. Behind the opaque form and the full volume hides an imaginary home for mankind not yet invented. Gilioli set out to carve a nude and finally designed a hall which could have been a church. Sculpture stretching out to architecture is petrified at a choosen moment in a trajectory with no downward curve, it bears witness to the deepest ambition of the sculptor but also to one of his most overbearing complexes. It is with a patient approach and simple confidence between patron and artist that the complete volume, the yearned-for synthesis will be achieved. SCULPTURE IN ARCHITECTURAL ENVIRONMENT AND DETACHED SCULPTURE. Simone Frigerio. Sculpture and architecture have always advanced side by side like a couple in the quest of perfect harmony. But gradually, in spite of a common vocabulary, the basic difference between them has corne to be the fact that architecture is considered functional whereas sculpture has become non-indis-pensable, a luxury for the happy few. But sculpture should play the part of a significant and necessary element in structure (as were Greek columns, Gothic gargoyles, etc.). To try to separate in exact terms the personal contribution of the sculptor and the architect in historic building is impossible. One of the best examples of their cooperation is given by the art of sepulchres through the ages, including those of Michel-Ange and up to the beginning of the century sculpture was essential in interior decorating. ln garden landscaping through the centuries statues, fountains, balustrades have been a complement to the surrounding architecture up to the contemporary Japanese gardon. However the pure architecture stripped of ornement which came to us from pioneers in Holland, Germany, Switzerland, Finland, is cut off from sculpture, which has been put into the background. Progress in building technique has also encouraged this, since white architecture was able to follow progress, sculpture remains a craft, but sculptors were still interested in following deve-lopments. The Cubist House presented in 1912 by Duchamp-Villon and Mare was a landmark on the path of reconciliation between the arts. In recent years sculpture is once again faced with the choice of remaining independent or imposing the essential plastic value in the midst of architectural environment. It is in sculpture that architecture will progress again, as proved by the latest Biennal of Youth where a great many polychrome sculptures proved to be architectural models in the making. GARDEN IN PARIS. Tom Hatashita. Hatashita moved tons of earth and rocks to transform them in this garden in which there is always something sacred, alive and meaningful. Rocks, the unchanging element in the Japanese gardon began to acquise new meaning, they speak. ‘The author’s stay in Japan completely changed him to consider that art and culture were elements which awaken our inner consciousness. But the beauty and the inner response to ail he saw was overshadowed by the material and spiritual poverty of man. When invited to design the garden in Paris, Hatashita translated his feelings into sculptural rock forms; graphi cally a huge boulder breaking open the earth’s crugt, the expression of a strong inner life force. It also represente Man emerging from his shell breakin the bondage of acquired prejudices. Psychological probl technical difficulties arising from Limited space and surrou many and often exacting but they have been adapted to ad Translation by M