The degree of liveliness is the degree by which consciousness defeats the purposelessness of fate. Life is purposefulness. Structure is what conscious-ness -borrows » from fate. It is fate reduced to essentials and the framework needed by consciousness to pursue its quest. Rationalism is for the cause-effect liaison. The conditions for ‘art’ are love and vision; vision so as to reach unheard-of regions, love so as to build in the abstractness the grace of man’s tare. From science and technique the off-spring is sterile. Fertility remains at the outset where the visionary burns in his own tire to mould his creatures of love. Love alone brings out the minutae of the author, momentous to him only. Thus art is conceivable only ”cosrnically », that is the creator gazes upon his labour from both the tremor of inner longing and the indiffe-rence of the whole universe, furiously dedicated and coldly indifferent. Mari may work at the production of a particular inorganic universe. Our own is possibly the product of a now-dissipated intelligent species. We would then be looking at a universe and at ourselves computed and produced by past gods whose flesh ceased long ago to be necessary. Page 40 shows veiws of Soleri’s home and workshop in Arizona where the vaults are concrete poured on the earth used as formwork and removed after hardening to reveal the final shape. Bottom left and right is a plan of the Cosanti Foundation, an arts research centre. Architecture is the primary aim of the Foundation, through mixed courses to graduates and apprentices teaching them the reciprocity existing beteen man and nature. P. 44 Soleri’s bridges. His vision is based on a humanist philosophy oriented towards the discovery of form but on the scale of tomorrow’s archi-tecture and its Iandscape. For him, technique is secondary, he sees only a formai will made possible by the application of audacious techniques. His bridges almost always include a combination of varied functional elements—they are « crossable architecture » on which many subsiduary utilities are grafted (hôtels, etc.) with -sculpture stages » which are plastic -happenings- to give soul to long distance highways. • ANDRE BLOC. 46 If we refer to present-day custom ,at least in France, we could give certain definitions of architecture, as it is carried out: Architecture is the art of building homes, schools, government offices, factories, rapidly with minimum expenditure, cr Architecture is the art of building to ensure the welfare of populations through material comfort and essential amenities within certain economic limits. As for contemporary town planning, d would be: lown planning is the wav in which space and built-up areas are organised in cities of work and play, the way in which superstructures, amenities, sports installations, and a few cultural buildings and some open space are prepared. In other words, the authorities are preoccupied almost exclusively by technical and material matters. For the plastic quality they rely on the architect’s qualification and ability. The resources made available to architectural research are practically nil, whereas scientific research is well catered for. This seems to mean that the authorities consider they can leave such matters to the professional body without discussion. But would it be possible to ask architects and town plan-ners to undertake research with their private means? It seems impossible, therefore great respect is due to those who go beyond the simple application of administrative rulings and who attempt to put the best of themselves into difficult work. Among these conscientious professional men, there are a few dreamers, who aspire to giving a share of their poetic world, but they have no means of doing so. Not only the authorites and the general public do not asks as much, but they do not even feel concerned by these problems whose importance does not occur to them. After lengthy hesitation, to-day I accept presenting a few modest attempts which I consider to be simple advances along my work as a sculptor. Expe-rience ir using form has taught me that sculpture to-day is only of secondary interest as a means of expression. Certain schools continue to prepare young artists who will meet disillusions later. There are a few museums who collect works, even one at Duisbourg exclusively devoted to research and pur-chase of representative modern sculpture. This gesture is appreciable, but it would be untrue to state that sculptors hold a part in the world to-day. It seems that the poetry of form would perhaps raise more curiosity if it entered everyday life by way of architectural design, nevertheless carried out by means and with the intentions of sculpture. The first surprise dissipated, such working methods could be understood by most of the public. Bricklayers become interested collaborators as soon as they are given uncommon structures to build which differ frome their humdrum duties. On the other hand, hostility is to be feared from a certain sector of the middle-class which considers itself cultured. As for the autho-rities they cannot accept easily architecture which escapes from standards and codes of practice. Those who undertake research must remain «back-roorw, workers. Experi-ments are tolerated but application is considered undesirable. There is no indulgence for those who take risks and make mistakes. As for my personal struggle, I hope to have the possibility one day of working for a better, stimulating environment. There is much to be done to bring a minimum of variety to architecture and town planning. Pretentious, no doubt, but convinced, I carry on this difficult struggle, attempting to establish direct relationship between architecture and sculpture which in older days added lusre to great civilisations. Architecture is not a plastic art like the others. Machine civilisation is still searching for its true expression. May I salute those who carry out alone and ni their own way difficult undertakings, who strive for the same ideas ss my on. Great personalities of the architectural world have left a void behind them but their influence lives on. However evolution is a necessity, and if they corne up against rack of understanding, nevertheless they have not struggled in vain. Now it is up to others to harness themselves to new tasks. Architec-ture represents one of the basic spiritual values of ail times. • HANS HOLLEIN, WALTER PICHLER. 54 A period of architecture is coming to a close. d is not an academic style which has been made to die in this great will of abstinence but rather imagi-nation, felling and poetry. -Architecture- drew itself aside, shut away far from « building » which Look advantage to invade our environment. Faced with this failure, it is natural that the younger artists should wish to take up the struggle but it is abnormal that they should have started off from the same basis, springing from the same mythology. In their stock of pictures only the second vave of the machine age appears; they add dams and refineries to their silos, aircraft carriers to liners, electronics to mechanics. The main feature in Hollein’s and Pichler’s work is the importance they concede to form. Pure form, action form, monumental form, a new cathedra) like a focal point towering above urban built-up areas. The architect’s creation becomes a deci-sive action, a confirmation of the power of man, his will to be god. It is more than a political act, it is a religious act. P. Goulet. Walter Pichler. Walter Pichler considers that architecture is the expression of the most powerful thoughts. For humans it will be restraint, to stiffle or to live in. It is not an envelope for the primitive instincts of the masses, but the incarna-tion of the power and aspirations of a few, without taking into consideration either stupidity or weakness. It never is used it crushes those who do not uphold it. Hans Hollein. Architecture is the order of the mind organised into construction, it is an idea in infinite space, showing the force and the spiritual power of man, the form and the expression of his destiny, of his life. All building action is cultural, the very expression of man, at the same time flesh and mind. Archi-tecture is elementary, sensual, primitive, brutal, horrible, powerful, dominating, the incarnation of subtle emotions, the work of those who occupy the highest level of civilisation, the elite. It dominates space by rising above the earth, furrowing under it, spreading over the ground in ail directions, dominating by mass and void, dominating space with space. Here there is no question of beauty, but if we must have it, it will be sensuel beauty of elementary power. It is not the material conditions which enforce the form of the cons-truction. The work must not show its utilitarian character, it is not the expression of the structure, d is no an envelope nor a refuge. The construc-tion must exist for itself, architecture is aimless, what we build will find its use after, since form does not result from function. Form in architecture is 3 form defined and constructed by the individual. For the first time in the history of humanity, at a time when the development experienced by science and technology gives us ail the means of building what we wish and as we wish, architecture which uses techniques but which is not dependent on them is pure and absolute. To-day the human being is master of infinite space. TECHNIQUE. Is there such a thing as architecture to-day, has it a meaning in the second machine era? Which ar the buildings which express our times? « Cathedrals of another aspect of the world- such is the expression used by the American journalist Edwin Diamond for the space ship launching ground at Cape Ken-nedy. To-day’s architecture can only be a true reflection of our times provided it does not oppose the technique, provided it uses not only its useful aspects but also the plastic dynamic, expressive, formai and emotional qualities. The objectiveness of technical constructions is a false legend, because they are often influenced by sentiment. New scales dominate the landscape. H. H. CITIES, CENTRES WHERE LIFE CONVERGES. As soon as man learned to stand, he started to build, piling stones one on the other, thus architecture was born. Man put boundaries round centres where human activities developed, and the town was born. The town is the methodical organisation of space materialised by building, the most persona! creation of man, the incarnation of his ill, of his desires, and spiritual force. If is also the proof fo his evolution. The destiny and the purpose of man, his culture and his civilisation are inconceivable without the town and cannot be separated from it. There it is that great ideas are born, cathedrals and palaces rise out of the ground, revolutions come to a head, the elite gather. At the sommet of civilisation and culture, man wishes to live in space saturated wit human life in the town. He aspires to a denser town and e purer coun-tryside, he gives priority to his mind over his body. In cities the hierachy of spaces and purposes reigns. We need concentration, but not decentralisation. We do not want millions of small built-up areas, spoiling the country but rather modem agricultural cities, which will leave us an authentic countryside. H. H. THE FUTURE OF ARCHITECTURE. Architecture is the will of man to define his own environment. Towns represent the three dimensional expression of his behaviour. The towns of the past answered the needs of commercial directions or strategic, political or religious strong points with towers and walls. To-day’s town is the expression of emotions and passions, the proof of conquest and domination of space. unity of ail humanity. It is dynamic and not static. The symbols are different; the pyramide were simple in aim and made of one material, the contemporary city springs from complexe elaboration faced with numerous solutions. These cities change the surface of the earth, they develop in volume with several interlacing levels. Traffic leaves the ground, oblique transport such as automatic sidewalks and escalators are used. New symbols spring up which in themselves conceal the idea of monuments and which represent impor-tant functions of city life. Thus for example the water tower and the refectory become predominating elements of an agricultural community, as does e dam. Bridge piles become the immense new gates to the city on aerodromes and highways. The appearance of buildings will change. Technical advances will favour spherical forms and overhanging elements which will encourage oblique as opposed to vertical building. We shall also furrow under the earth to hide our stocks. Architecture in such conditions as the antarctic will be put to the test since no sky, no sun, no trees will help to soften its mistakes with flattering shadow. We have the mobile house, one day the mobile city. Several men had this vision at the beginning of the century but most architects, town planners and politicians remained blind. If they had had eyes to see, they would have realised the immense promises the Eiffel Tower held. The means exist to carry this out, but the will and the spirit of our century is lacking. H. H. • THE ARCHITECTS OF FLORENCE. 68 THE CHURCH OF St. JOHN BAPTIST AT CAMPI BISENZIO. Giovanni Michelucci. Nobody has felt in this church on the motorway other than the sense of movement, and not the thought or the presence of death which is constant as if death is the end to which each space leads. The architect did not intend to make this thought exident when he planned the church but he could not avoid this evidence. He believes that et the heart of every artistic work, • presence must always be met, clearly or veiled. It may even become theme. He therefore proposes this argument, but realises that the form is designing are the result of a dialogue set up with men, nature, ob materials and everything concerned with life and consequently death. H HND ART DOC