ART The guerrilla vanguard of british contemporary art. G.S. Whittet (p. 59). Britain is hindered by insularity, but instead of forming an organised vanguard, her artists act like secret agents. The all-powerful leader Henry More, whose massive forms, close to the natural outline of rocks and land-scapes, create ressemblance in their raw contours. More than ever, the imparts monumental scale to his work, implying authority. His feminine coun-terpart, Barbara Hepworth, seeks through the softening abrasion of irregu-larities to present streaked artifact of pure form. Complimentary symbols, conflict, attraction, repulsion, tenderness, depict the tension of human mating. Following these leaders corne Lynn Chadwick, whose exhibition of architec-tonic concepts in wrought iron dictates new associations for open-air sculpture, and Kenneth Armitage, on the threshold of a phase of monumental mono-lithic sculpture. Imagery with metal is used by many young sculptors—Geoffrey Clarke for Coventry Cathedral cross, Bryan Kneale working steel, Elisabeth Frink uses copper, David Partridge hammers nails into changing textures and tones. Painting, whose production is subject to thematic cycles of treatment, follows a more sporadic evolution. The universel talent of Francis Bacon arouses almost a shudder of disgust. His male figures naked of ail clothing are almost bared of their skin, exposing hollow flesh. Although this painting has the elementary force of life, the homosexual background is penetrating. In his hands, colour has to be hurtled on to canvas in the heat of frenzy. Keith Vaughan, one-time disciple of Matisse, groups figures and landscapes. The vivid colours of the background bring it forward, thus projecting the foreground even nearer the spectator. Victor Pasmore also felt the necessity of drawing his art from the flatness of the parallel plan of the eye often with dark curved contours turning in opposite directions on a white ground. Non objective painting has been of little interest in Great Britain, although surface decoration in a provocative arrangement has recently returned with young painters whose canvases are alive with dazzling parallel stripes, curves and angles. Landscapes and figures remain the basis of British art, while a solitary master of still-life survives—Ben Nicholson. But classicism and constructiveness represent a minority—the spirit of oil painting is romantic (Graham Sutherland, ‘von Hitchens and L.S. Lowry). Pop art, produced by the lightheartedness of Royal College of Arts graduates reveals a lessening of the irreverance of youth. One of its creators, David Hockney, found a new deli-cateness in handling his palette during his stay in America. William Scott has reached full maturity in the vibrating spheres of his symbols. British art, in spite of fleeting moments of success among very young painters, attains its greatest force amongst men undergoing style changes before middle age. The situation of the arts in Great Britain to-day. J.P. Hodin (p. 60). The end of Pop art. Public opinion, unfavourable to American over-domination of English paint-ing, has calmed down now that Pop art, that exploitation of common taste, nurtured by the superficiel attraction of publicity design, is out. Erroneously comparted to Dada, Pop art was pleasing, bought, loved, although its last triumph at Venice Biennale is no proof of artistic merit, but rather an indi-cation that prize-giving is dangerous to arts. Political and economic influences must be eliminated to succeed in recovering Venice. The Kassel Documenta build upon choice and quality and is the greatest success to date for English sculpture and painting. Painting versus sculpture. Modem British sculpture achieved a leading position after the second world war through the impact of Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth and others. Few painters were able to equal this—Ben Nicholson, Francis Bacon and perhaps Victor Pasmore with his mastery of technique and taste based on the Neo-Plastic and Purist creed, von Hitchens whose lyrical art, rooted in Fauvism, is the expression of beauty and harmony. English art critics and painters must shed their dependance upon American examples and understand that art needs the ideas and inspiration of the « Ecole de Paris », nerve centre of artistic and intellectual life. After the Impressionnists, the Fauvists, Cubism and Free Expression, cultural tradition and avant-garde spirit are as strong as ever in Paris, concentrated in the personality of André Malraux. Sexualism and abstraction. After Expressionist chaos and abstract boredom, the artist, in search of subject matter, finds sexualism. Strongly represented in Pop, it is porno-graphy in art, pleasing a generation which believes in the leadership of the scientific mind rather than in fate or mysticism. Only the attitude of those who create and defend more stable achievements can rectify the situation. Icaru of Cornwall – Peter Lanyon. This artist, a former pupil of Ben Nicholson, did no share the weaknesses of his contemporaries. He was the poet of Cornwall in paint, deeply attached to its landscape and traditions, which he explored even under water and from a glider. Although no realist, he painted the reality and character of his sur-roundings. Form, atmosphere, mood and clarity were mingled together in the most outstanding of this period of English painting. The youth of british art. S. Frigerio (p. 61). For years, Venice was the meeting place for insular and continental art, each Biennale witnessing an increase in the interest shown to British sculpture entries, while remaining less favourable to painters. Ben Nicholson had a moderate success, whereas Francis Bacon was immediately hailed in France and Italy as the long-awaited master. His erotic obsessional themes caught art at a turning point and revigorated the British contribution to the 3rd Paris Biennale. The English invented Pop art, but to limit the damage, critics hurriedly recorded that it was only a fashion. However it seems to have solid backing, since its creators graduate from royal academies and are frequentiy hung in well-known galleries. There is even sophistication there where we expect to find simplicity. Some artists go against the new figuration and undertake formai, graphic and tachiste research which emerges on abstraction, previously cast aside. What of the future? The young generation of British painting is reassured—a picture by Hockney has been hung in the Tate gallery. Perhaps art will be able to find its place in the familiarity of life, London has already awakened public interest which Paris is still striving to Capture. English artists at school. J.-A. França (p. 61). Young British artists, pop or not pop, go to school. They never hesitate to publish their university degrees and diplomas on exhibition catalogues, thus linking sacred tradition with their esthetic revoit. Between 1959 and 1962 a dozen young painters at the third Paris Biennale were graduates from the best-known British art schools (Royal College of Art, Slade School of Fine Arts, etc.). St Martins School is preparing the new generations of sculptons judging from their 1965 exhibition. In 1964, ail English entries to the Stuy-vesant Foundation Exhibition had school training. Not only do artists attend courses but they also return later as professors, for example Anthony Caro and Joe Tilson at St. Martins, Peter Blake at the Royal College of Art, Harold Cohen at Slade. There is no doubt that teaching is the most positive destiny for a British artist. Therefore fine arts schools are dynamic and reveal ne » trends. The Royal College of Art proclames that its aim is to give student4 a chance to work « in their own way »… I almost forgot to add that Francis Bacon never went to school.